Russian “little green men” in Ukraine; Russian hacks into the email server of theU.S. Democratic National Committee (DNC); protest and counter-protest over a mosque in Houston, with both sides fake and organized by Russian trolls: theseare hybrid threats in the 21st century. Most of them are not strikingly new. The exception is the virtual or digital realm, which empowers new tools and lowers the entry cost of using them – think of web posts by comparison to planting articles in traditional newspapers. The goal of hybrid threats is to achieve out-comes without actual war, and this report focuses on tools short of actual combat.The target is opposing societies, not combatants. Thus, the distinction between combatants and citizens, blurring for decades, breaks down almost entirely. And the tactic is the simultaneous employment of the range of possible instruments, from threats of war to propaganda and everything in between.